Orthographic vs Perspective Camera
Maya 2012 Tutorial
How to Understand the Difference Between Orthographic and Perspective Cameras in Maya
Maya supports two kinds of cameras, Orthographic and Perspective. The main difference between the cameras is that Orthographic cameras don't have a vanishing point. In other words, if you had two cubes that were the same size, but miles apart, they would still appear the same size with an Orthographic camera.
A good rule of thumb is, "Model in orthographic and render in perspective". It is very easy to align your objects while working in Orthographic.
Add a polygon cube to the workspace by choosing Create > Polygon Primitives > Cube.
In the default configuration, your scene has four view panels. The top, front and side are Orthographic cameras. If only one view appears, open Maya's preferences, Interface - UI Elements category. In the Panel Configurations section, set the Starting New Scenes menu to Four View.
The default upper right panel is a perspective camera. Notice that if you click the View Cube, Front face, you see a perspective front view of the object. This view is similar to the front orthographic view except the back face of the cube appears smaller than the front because of the perspective.
To access a camera's settings, select the camera in the Outliner and open the Attribute Editor.